雅思流程图+地图题库(2017附范文下载)

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写在前面的话:其实流程图地图并非洪水猛兽,可能以讹传讹的力量太可怕了,现在烤鸭都是谈流色变,我也无力纠正这个流言了。这两天整理了一些流程图地图的资料,包括8篇范文(附注里有下载),目前处于流程图地图高发季,希望童鞋们好好利用,顺利攻破传说中的“洪水猛兽”,加油!


流程图

流程图6点参考要领:

1. 找到流程图的过程,起点,终点。

2. 找到图上标出的已知动作,如果出现生词,尽量猜测。无词,用自己的语言。

3. 按照步骤,分段描述,千万不能省略任何一步。

4. 切记!加入流畅合理的表示顺序的关联词。

5. 句型以主动为主,搭配被动,以及主语从句(例如:It can be seen from the graph that…)。

6. 时态要使用一般现在时。

例文分析1:

The diagram shows the stages in the process of making chocolate.(所有的小作文第一句话都要用一般现在时。流程图必备三个词:process整个过程;stage阶段;step步骤)

Chocolate comes from the cacao tree, which is grown in parts of South America, Africa and Indonesia.(开头不能一上来就直接介绍cacao tree,而是通过主题词chocolate引出,否则显得太唐突)

【流程图 特点之一 :介绍过程要使用一般现在时】

【流程图 特点之二:大量使用定语从句,将有关联的两句话连接。】

【流程图特点之三:大量使用被动语态】The tree produces large red pods which contain white cocoa beans.

【流程图特点之四:使用一些表示顺序的连接词】when the pods are ripe, they are harvested, the beans are removed and they are fermented for several days in large wooden boxes.(三个句子的并列:“句子A,句子B and 句子C”。)During the fermenting process, the beans turn brown.

【流程图特点之五:要适当地添加个别图中没有交代但能从图片中直接读出来的一些内容,否则可能达不到字数要求。但是一定要把握尺度,千万不要加上自己的主观观点,否则会扣分】

Next, the brown beans are spread in the sun to dry. They are then put in large sacks and transported by train or lorry. After this, the beans are taken to a chocolate factory where they are roasted in an oven at temperatures of between 250 and 350 degree Celsius.

After being roasted, the beans are crushed and the outer shell is removed. This part is not needed for making chocolate. Finally, the inner part of the bean is pressed and liquid chocolate is produced.

【流程图特点之六:一般不需要写总结】

例文分析2:

The process by which bricks are manufactured for the building industry can be outlined in seven consecutive steps. First the raw material, clay, which was just below the surface of soil in certain clay-rich areas has to be dug up by a digger.

Then the lumps of clay are placed on a metal grid in order to break up the big chunks of clay into much smaller areas, which fall through the metal grid onto a roller, whose motion further segregates the bits of clay. Sand and water are added to make a homogenous mixture, which is then either formed in moulds or cut into brick-shaped pieces by means of a wire cutter.

Those fresh bricks are then kept in a drying oven for at least 24 and a maximum of 48 hours, several dozens if not hundreds of bricks at a time. The dried bricks are then transferred to a so-called kiln, another type of high temperature oven. First they are kept at a moderate temperature of 200 ℃ -1300 ℃. This process is followed by cooling down the finished bricks for 48 to 72 hours in a cooling chamber.

Once the bricks have cooled down and have become hard, they get packaged and delivered to their final destination, be it a building site or storage. (215 words)

【考官评语】

Band 9

This response fully satisfies the requirements of the task. All key features of each stage of the process are appropriately and accurately presented. An excellent overview is given at the beginning of the response and this skilfully incorporates part of the rubric, changing the grammatical function, to give a brief summary of the whole process. The message is very easy to read, with seamless cohesion that attracts no attention. Paragraphing, linking and referencing are all skilfully managed. The language used is very fluent and sophisticated. A wide range of vocabulary and structures are used with full flexibility and accuracy. Only rare minor ‘slips’ can be found and these do not detract from the high rating.

 

例文分析3:

下面是剑桥6的test 3 考到的流程图,考官给的范文。范文中有两步考官直接就写成一步,本来是3-8天和16天两个时间段,缩成了3个星期,大家写的时候可以分别写,不用写这么精练。范文:

The first diagram shows that there are four main stages in the life of the silkworm.第一个图显示了,在蚕的生命过程中主要有四步。

First of all, eggs are produced by the moth and it takes ten days for each egg to become a silkworm larva that feeds on mulberry leaves. 首先,蛾子产出卵,每个卵用10天的时间变成蚕的幼虫, 他们以桑叶为食。This stage lasts for up to six weeks until the larva produces a cocoon of silk thread around itself. 这个阶段持续最多到六个星期,直到幼虫周围生产出茧(silk

thread). After a period of about three weeks, the adult moths eventually emerge from these cocoons and the life cycle begins again. 经过三个星期的一段时间之后,成年的蛾子最终从茧里面出来,这个生命的循环就再一次开始了。The cocoons are the raw material used for the production of silk cloth. 茧是生产丝绸的原材料。Once selected, they are boiled in water and the thread can be separated in the unwinding stage. 一旦被挑选出来,他们在水里煮沸,丝可以在打开的阶段中被分离出来。Each thread is between 300 and 900 metres long, which means they can be twisted together, dyed and then used to produce cloth in the weaving stage. 每条丝是300到900米长,这就意味着,他们能够被缠绕在一起,染色,然后在织布阶段被用于生产布品。Overall, the diagrams show that the cocoon stage of the silk worm can be used to produce silk cloth through a very simple process.

范文总结:

1.  163个字。

2.  使用了很多合适的关联词,见阴影部分。

3.  主要是简单的并列句。

4.  句型,搭配了一些被动语态。

5.  动词使用丰富:produce, feed on, last, emerge, select, boil, separate, unwind,

twist (多数原词带入)

6.  名词比较专业:life cycle, raw material.

 

雅思流程图的重点词汇解析:

表述时间:

in 10 days

during the period of 10 days

The process lasts for up to 10 days

after 10 days

10 days passed until something happened.

表示然后:then, next, in the next state, following that, after that, the next step in the stage is ….

表示过程:process, procedure, formation, development

表示步骤:step, stage, phase

时间阶段:after a period of …months/days/minutes, during…

顺序连词:first, first of all, in the first stage, initially, to begin with

second, then, next, also

after that, at the same time, in the meantime, meanwhile

prior to, until

the first stage involves … / in the second stage / in the third stage /

in the last stage / The next step in the stage is that…

目的连词:in order to / in order that; so as to / so that

 

常见动词:

produce生产,lay放置,accumulate积累,gather/collect收集,obtain获得,heat up加热,

expand膨胀,bend弯曲,turn off关闭,cool down冷却,disconnect断开连接,spin旋转/纺,

strike打击, compress压缩,release释放, expand膨胀, move/flow流动, accelerate加速,

form形成, press按压, adjust调整, absorb吸收, form形成, process加工, rotate旋转,

chop坎, grind磨(碎)/碾(碎),light点燃, burn燃烧, ignite点燃, reflect反光,turn转,

starts开始, stops结束,records录音, turns up调高, turns down调低,winds缠绕, unwinds解开,

revolves旋转,fold折叠,unfold打开,reverse颠倒/倒转,adapt适应,adjust调整,alter改变,cure治愈,

disappear消失,dissolve溶化/解散,exchange交换,expand扩张/膨胀,fade退色,increase增长,

promote促进/升职, reduce减少,renew使更新/使恢复,renovate革新/更新/修复,replace取代,

swell肿胀,switch改变,transform完全改变,vary改变,swap交换,shrink收缩,melt溶解,heal/cure治愈,

form/come into being/take shape形成,produce生产,gain/get/acquire获取,evaporate蒸发,volatilize挥发,

draw提取,recycle回收,extract拔,absorb吸收,collect收集,meet相遇,be made up of由…组成,

be made of由…制成,be made from由…制成, feed on以…为食,depend on/rely on依赖,release/send out释放,

sort分类,separate分开,conveyed运送,cut into切成,poured into倒入,heated加热,melted into融化成,flows into流入

 

———————————-分  割  线—————————-

地图

地图题写作在很多书上都没有系统的指导,它有别于数据图,构思方面没有数据图那么复杂,但在语言驾驭,很多学生都感到很陌生。

地图题分两种,一种为地理变迁题,一种为选址题。首先我们来看地理变迁题,它描述的是一个地方(多为一个城镇)在一段时间的发展变化。如2006年9月A 类 TASK 1, 剑1TEST 4。就这些图形,我们来总结地理变迁题的写作要点。

地图题注意要点:

1 .地图的起始点

2 .方向很重要

3 .认真阅读并尽量记住图中已有的信息

考察点:

1 .方向方位路线顺序的把握

2 .相对位置关系的描述和辨别

3 .表方位的词或者词组主要是介词的用法

4 .图中关键词的定位

î      时态

如果地图题反映的是一个地方在过去的一段时间的变化,文章用一般过去时。如果地图题反映的是一个地方在将来一段时间的变化趋势,文章用一般将来时或表“估计”的词汇。如果地图题反映的是一个地方从过去到现在的变化,可用现完成时。

如:现在停车场改成了一个剧院。

The car park has been removed and replaced by a theatre.

城镇A的家庭数量从1937年到2020年将翻一番。

The number of homes in Town A is likely to double

(is likely to= is predicted to /is estimated to/is projected to/is expected to )

又可为:

It is likely that the number of homes in Town A will double.

(it is likely that = it is predicted/estimated/projected/ expected that…..)

1.读题:读图标的含义,哪个是铁路,哪个是村庄等等都读明白了。要看清哪个是公路,哪个是铁路。有没有交叉点等等。

2.确定写的顺序,是按变化写还是按位置写,还是两个的综合体。

3.如果是要求描述变化,把明显的变化先划出,最好用词在图旁边描述,确定

自己要写几点。

4.句型多用被动语态。

5.时态使用一般现在时或者过去时,也可能现在完成时。表示将来的时间可以用

下列表达:be predicted/be expected to do…

一般不用将来时,用上面的结构。

6.记得用关联的词和句子:

It is obvious/notable/noticeable

It is easy to locate/to find that…

It can be seen from the graph that…

地图题最好的补充资料就是听力题里面的地图题的单词

î      细节变化

地图每个细节变化都要提到,不要忽视一个细节

î      语态

地图题用被动语态

如: 2000年在城镇A 新建了一个医院:A new hospital was established in Town A in 2000.

î      地图题的书写顺序:时间顺序和空间顺序

如2006年9月A 类TASK 1

The map shows the development of the village of Kelsbey between 1780 and 2000.

这篇文章大体框架按时间顺序,BODY 分三段分别描述:1780年村庄,1860村庄, 2000年村庄。对每一年的描述,如1780年村庄,我们要注意按方位顺序来描述,否则文章会出现混乱。这就需要考生在考前对方位词进行总结。地图题的方位我们说东西南北,不说成左右。

î        A 在B 的东方/西方/南方/北方

A is/ lies/ is located/ is situated in/on / to the east/west/south/north of B

(in 表A 在B 内部, ON 表A 和B接壤,TO 表A 和B 分开)

î        A 在B 内部的某个部位

A is in the eastern/ southern/ western/ northern part of B.

î        A在B 西北部的120 千米处

A lies 120 km to the northwest of B.

î        A 在B…..角落

A is at/in  the south-eastern corner of B ( at 表示A 在B 外部, in表A 在B 内部)

î        在河流或道路的南边/北边等

On the south/southern side of the river

On both sides of the road

On the other side

î        临近马路的地区

The area adjacent to/ near /next to/ just off the road

î        在道路或河流的最南端

At the southern end of the river

î        A 在B 的对面

A is on the opposite side of B

A is opposite B

î        A 在B 东部的边界上(A 在B外部)

A is on the eastern border of B

î        A 在B 东部边缘上 (A 在B 内部)

A is on/ along the eastern edge of B

î      “变化”词汇

地图题描述的是一个地区的变化,那么“变化”词汇必须过关。

变化包括两种:图形原有事物的改变,图形新添事物。

我们先看图形原有事物的改变:

î        原有事物可说成:

The original/previous/former garden

î        原有事物尺寸上变大/变小:

The size of the library has been enlarged/extended/halved/reduced by half

î        原有事物在数量上增多或减少:

The number of homes has increased/risen/grown/reduced /decreased/dropped/fallen/

doubled/ tripled/ quadrupled to 500.

î        原有事物没了:

The farms completely disappeared/were removed.

î        原有事物被改为:

A becomes B

A is transformed/reconstructed/redeveloped/converted/changed/turned over to/ into B

A is replaced /substituted by B = A gives way to B

î        图形新添事物

A newly-built road

A new car park was built/established/set up/constructed/completed and opened in the middle of B

A new IT centre has been added to the library

The year 2000 saw two additions to the land: a pond in the northern part and a vegetable garden on the opposite side.

地图题第二类为选址题 如剑5 TEST 3 TASK 1

 

The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket. 为一个城镇的超市选址, 有两个位置 S1 和S2 供选择。选址题并不难写,主要注意两点:

a 位置描述

b 优缺点

这篇文章我们BODY段可分两段,分别陈述:

S1的位置及位置相应的优缺点

S2的位置及位置相应的优缺点

其中表位置的方位词已在前文有总结,

同理, 2006 年2 月A 类Task 1: The diagram below shows the problem of flooding in a UK town and two possible solutions

我们BODY 段可分两段,分别陈述:

Solution 1  的解决方案和相应的优缺点

Solution 2  的解决方案和相应的优缺点

其中,解决方案实际还是要涉及一些方位词。

总之,对于地理变迁题,建议考生考前要充分的掌握上述五点,勤加练习,选址题则把握位置和优缺点两个要害,地图题的写作就会明朗化。

地图题在雅思小作文写作中可以说考的频次非常低,顶多一年一次而已。纵观历次雅思地图题写作,我们不难发现无非就是“两位置方案的二选一或“某处事物新旧变迁的过程描述”。不管“二选一”还是“过程描述”,请注意,一定不要忘了要结合地图中所体现的“人文与地理环境”进行相互的“比较与对比”且体现“比对结果”;而这里的比对,前者是“横向比对”,强调各自“优缺点比对”,后者则是“纵向比对”,强调“新旧变化”。解题思路有了,那么剩下的是语言上的事情了。

在语言上,请你注意以下几个方面:首先平时要多积累表示“方位、比对、变化”等方面的词汇和句子表达;其次,要注意时态的选择,“二选一”型常用一般现在时态,而“过程描述”型则要视题目而定,往往综合运用一般过去时态、一般现在时态和现在完成时态;最后,要注意语态的把握,要主动与被动相互结合运用,记住适当被动能给考官好印象,但切忌出现人称代词。


附:流程图地图资料下载(包含八篇范文):http://pan.baidu.com/s/1i5ruVPz

 

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